Rio de Janeiro
One particular region that has continued to drill deeper to hit the hydrocarbon jackpot is located in the world's southern hemisphere and features unconventional conditions for recovering hydrocarbons. Specifically, Brazil's energy giant Petrobras is taking the reins for unlocking vast amounts of oil and gas below layers of salt, rock and sand, and several of the most memorable finds are located in extreme water depths in the country's subsalt basins. Operator of the Orinoco heavy oil belt, Venezuela's state-controlled PDVSA also reigns as a primary player in South America's energy sector. As a region, South America boasts some of the largest oil-and-gas discoveries ever made and is estimated to contain billions in recoverable hydrocarbon reserves.
Geophysicists play an important role in the oil and gas industry as they help find underground oil and gas deposits by creating a clear picture of what is below the earth’s surface. Using physical methods (seismic, gravitational, magnetic, electric) they measure the physical properties of subsurface earth to detect or infer the presence of oil or gas. The most common way to create a clear picture of the earth's subsurface is through the seismic method whereby shock waves that are set off at the surface resonate through the earth, and the returning echo can be used to tell what is beneath the surface. Geophysicists are usually classified into three categories: acquisition, processing and interpretation. A strong geoscience, physics, or mathematics background is necessary for a career in geophysics.