Harvesting an abundance of oil and natural gas resources, the Middle East supplies nearly half of all exports to the global oil market. Middle Eastern countries Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are all members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which pumps roughly 40% of the world's oil, with Saudi Arabia leading the pack for the greatest amount of output. OPEC's crude oil production was 28.7 million barrels per day in the first half of 2009.
Supply chain management encompasses demand and supply planning, suppliers, inventory, warehouse and logistics management. It covers all processes related to raw materials and associated information from sourcing to end users. There are various certification exams developed for supply chain professionals, namely APIC's certification (Certified Supply Chain Professional or CSCP), ISCEA'S certification (Certified Supply Chain Manager or CSCM), and the CISCM certificate (Chartered Supply Chain Management Professional or CSCMP).