Cartography and mapping entails the study and practice of making maps. Originally these processes were done by hand, but today this process is usually done with the assistance of a geographic information systems (GIS). These systems capture, store, analyze and manage spatial and geographic data, and they are also particularly useful for managing natural resources. They can be used in many aspects of exploration and production including land management, well planning, pipeline routing and environmental monitoring. Although most companies use GIS now, there is still some field work required to record land formations. Positions in cartography and mapping require a high level of computer proficiency and a strong geoscience or geographic background.