Maturin Estado Monagas
One particular region that has continued to drill deeper to hit the hydrocarbon jackpot is located in the world's southern hemisphere and features unconventional conditions for recovering hydrocarbons. Specifically, Brazil's energy giant Petrobras is taking the reins for unlocking vast amounts of oil and gas below layers of salt, rock and sand, and several of the most memorable finds are located in extreme water depths in the country's subsalt basins. Operator of the Orinoco heavy oil belt, Venezuela's state-controlled PDVSA also reigns as a primary player in South America's energy sector. As a region, South America boasts some of the largest oil-and-gas discoveries ever made and is estimated to contain billions in recoverable hydrocarbon reserves.
Drilling fluids, also referred to as drilling mud, are added to the wellbore to facilitate the drilling process by suspending cuttings, controlling pressure, stabilizing exposed rock, providing buoyancy, and cooling the drill bit. Mud engineers ensure that the drilling mud that is used is made to the required specifications based on the expected geology. Drilling fluids can be water, oil, or synthetic-based, and mud engineers must take rock formation composition, as well as environmental impact, into account when making decisions about what drilling fluids might be best for any given well.