One particular region that has continued to drill deeper to hit the hydrocarbon jackpot is located in the world's southern hemisphere and features unconventional conditions for recovering hydrocarbons. Specifically, Brazil's energy giant Petrobras is taking the reins for unlocking vast amounts of oil and gas below layers of salt, rock and sand, and several of the most memorable finds are located in extreme water depths in the country's subsalt basins. Operator of the Orinoco heavy oil belt, Venezuela's state-controlled PDVSA also reigns as a primary player in South America's energy sector. As a region, South America boasts some of the largest oil-and-gas discoveries ever made and is estimated to contain billions in recoverable hydrocarbon reserves.
Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry to help convert raw materials into useful products. They deal with the design, construction, maintenance and operation of plants and equipment to carry out these procedures. In the oil and gas industry, chemical engineers work to help refine crude oil into useable products such as gasoline and lubricants, and they are also heavily involved in chemical plants and manufacturing operations. Some positions that would require a chemical engineer include process engineer, corrosion engineer and petrochemical engineer, among others.