Boasting 178 billion barrels of proven oil reserves and close to 58 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves as of 2009, Canada is the world's largest reserve holder after Saudi Arabia and the top supplier of U.S. energy imports. Canada is also home to the world's most expansive oil sands deposits, the development of which extracts and processes a heavy, tar-like crude bitumen that comprises the bulk of the country's reserves. Canada's oil and natural gas sector is privatized, with industry regulation occurring at the provincial level.
Piping engineers apply the principles of mathematics, physics and chemistry to assure the design of pipe systems used to convey liquid or gas from one location to another. Specialists in this field may focus on materials, design or stress analysis, and they ensure that piping systems are designed, fabricated, installed, inspected, operated and maintained. This is extremely important to the safety of personnel, public safety, and facility reliability.