Boasting 178 billion barrels of proven oil reserves and close to 58 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves as of 2009, Canada is the world's largest reserve holder after Saudi Arabia and the top supplier of U.S. energy imports. Canada is also home to the world's most expansive oil sands deposits, the development of which extracts and processes a heavy, tar-like crude bitumen that comprises the bulk of the country's reserves. Canada's oil and natural gas sector is privatized, with industry regulation occurring at the provincial level.
Mining is the process of extracting valuable minerals including coal and precious metals from the earth. Minerals such as these are generally found in orebodies, lodes, veins, reefs or seams and are extracted by digging or laying explosives. Materials found from mining can’t be reproduced or created artificially and so are non-renewable resources.