Harvesting an abundance of oil and natural gas resources, the Middle East supplies nearly half of all exports to the global oil market. Middle Eastern countries Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are all members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which pumps roughly 40% of the world's oil, with Saudi Arabia leading the pack for the greatest amount of output. OPEC's crude oil production was 28.7 million barrels per day in the first half of 2009.
Metallurgy is a branch of engineering that studies the chemical and physical elements of metals, their compounds, and their mixtures, known as alloys. Materials engineers manage the research, analysis, specification, design and development of materials through understanding their behaviors and properties. This is vital to improving the performance, durability, cost-effectiveness and technological advancement of finished products.