The westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Black Sea to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The economic and political association of 27 European member states, the European Union (EU) has developed a single market through which a standardized system of laws apply, and under this union, sixteen member states have adopted the euro as its common currency. In 2006, the EU had a gross inland energy consumption of 1,825 million tonnes of oil equivalent, with nuclear energy as the primary source of energy produced in the region. Currently, the EU imports around 82% of its oil and 57% of its natural gas resources.
Umbilicals serve as the lifeline to subsea equipment by transferring power, chemicals, communications and more through an assembly of steel tubes and hoses. Risers serve as a connection between subsea field developments and production or drilling facilities by transferring produced fluids from the seabed to the surface or to transfer injection fluids, control fluids, or lift gas from the surface to the ocean floor. Flowlines lay on the seabed and transport production or injection fluids from one subsea structure to another.