The westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Black Sea to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The economic and political association of 27 European member states, the European Union (EU) has developed a single market through which a standardized system of laws apply, and under this union, sixteen member states have adopted the euro as its common currency. In 2006, the EU had a gross inland energy consumption of 1,825 million tonnes of oil equivalent, with nuclear energy as the primary source of energy produced in the region. Currently, the EU imports around 82% of its oil and 57% of its natural gas resources.
Subsea Engineering deals with the design and analysis of underwater structures for oil and gas fields in which the production wellhead is on the seabed. Subsea engineers specialize in systems made up of risers, umbilicals, and flowlines for these fields located offshore. Designing tools and equipment to be used on the ocean floor requires a working knowledge of underwater procedures, reliability of materials in the presence of corrosion due to sea water, and more.