The westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Black Sea to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The economic and political association of 27 European member states, the European Union (EU) has developed a single market through which a standardized system of laws apply, and under this union, sixteen member states have adopted the euro as its common currency. In 2006, the EU had a gross inland energy consumption of 1,825 million tonnes of oil equivalent, with nuclear energy as the primary source of energy produced in the region. Currently, the EU imports around 82% of its oil and 57% of its natural gas resources.
The Chief Mate, or Chief Officer, is a licenced crew member that is second in command of the vessel. The Chief Mate or Officer reports directly to the Captain and is responsible for the Deck Department and Cargo along with commanding all of the crew in those departments. The Chief Mate or Officer holds the same rank as First Mate or Officer and a crew will usually only have one or the other. Below Chief/First Mate or Officer will be Second Mate/Officer, Third Mate Officer, and so on depending on the size of the vessel.