The westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Black Sea to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The economic and political association of 27 European member states, the European Union (EU) has developed a single market through which a standardized system of laws apply, and under this union, sixteen member states have adopted the euro as its common currency. In 2006, the EU had a gross inland energy consumption of 1,825 million tonnes of oil equivalent, with nuclear energy as the primary source of energy produced in the region. Currently, the EU imports around 82% of its oil and 57% of its natural gas resources.
Projects have numerous activities that need to be planned and scheduled properly so that they may be completed on time. Planning identifies what activities are required whilst scheduling determines the sequence of these activities. Planners and Schedulers manage work priorities, schedules, work orders and plan revisions once there are design changes, unavailability of materials or services and other project disruptions. They typically use project controls and project management software to manage these functions.