The westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Black Sea to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The economic and political association of 27 European member states, the European Union (EU) has developed a single market through which a standardized system of laws apply, and under this union, sixteen member states have adopted the euro as its common currency. In 2006, the EU had a gross inland energy consumption of 1,825 million tonnes of oil equivalent, with nuclear energy as the primary source of energy produced in the region. Currently, the EU imports around 82% of its oil and 57% of its natural gas resources.
Pipeline engineering consists of the planning, design, construction, integrity, maintenance and operations of pipelines and associated facilities, both onshore and offshore. Pumping stations, compressor stations, storage terminals, manifolds, and control systems are just a few of the facilities where the technical expertise of a pipeline engineer are required. Pipelines consist of pumps, valves and control devices to carry liquids and gases over long distances, therefore requiring multi-disciplinary engineering knowledge to handle any issues or improvements as needed.