The westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Black Sea to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The economic and political association of 27 European member states, the European Union (EU) has developed a single market through which a standardized system of laws apply, and under this union, sixteen member states have adopted the euro as its common currency. In 2006, the EU had a gross inland energy consumption of 1,825 million tonnes of oil equivalent, with nuclear energy as the primary source of energy produced in the region. Currently, the EU imports around 82% of its oil and 57% of its natural gas resources.
The ETO or Electro-technical officer is responsible for the maintenance of electrical and electronic equipment on board a vessel. An ETO will usually have gained an ETO Certificate of Competency, which was only recently introduced in 2010 to give ETOs recognition for their abilities and provide an international standard of competency. Without an ETO Certificate of Competency the crew member may carry out some of the duties of an ETO but will be employed in another capacity such as Electrician or Engineer