Predominantly dependent on coal as its leading energy commodity, South Africa is a small but growing player in the oil and natural gas industry, with proven oil reserves of only 15 million barrels. South Africa's energy sector is regulated by The National Energy Regulator of South Africa (NERSA), while state-run Petroleum Oil and Gas Corporation (PetroSA) manages licensing for the country's oil and gas exploration. To supplement its natural gas supply, South Africa is investing in partnerships with neighboring countries and is financing exploration in the country's Mossel Bay fields to target additional natural gas reserves.
Civil engineering is the discipline dealing with the design, construction, and maintenance, typically of public works such as roads, bridges, canals and buildings. Civil engineers can be involved in nearly every stage of a construction project – from site selection, writing specifications for materials, reviewing bids, and supervising construction. They aim to design and build structures that meet requirements for safety, reliability, cost, and energy efficiency.